APA 6th Edition Bilban, M., Vrhovec, S. i Zorec Karlovšek, M. (2003). Blood Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 54 (4), 253-259. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/342
MLA 8th Edition Bilban, Marjan, et al. "Blood Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse." Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, vol. 54, br. 4, 2003, str. 253-259. https://hrcak.srce.hr/342. Citirano 08.12.2021.
Chicago 17th Edition Bilban, Marjan, Sonja Vrhovec i Majda Zorec Karlovšek. "Blood Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse." Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju 54, br. 4 (2003): 253-259. https://hrcak.srce.hr/342
Harvard Bilban, M., Vrhovec, S., i Zorec Karlovšek, M. (2003). 'Blood Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse', Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 54(4), str. 253-259. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/342 (Datum pristupa: 08.12.2021.)
Vancouver Bilban M, Vrhovec S, Zorec Karlovšek M. Blood Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. [Internet]. 2003 [pristupljeno 08.12.2021.];54(4):253-259. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/342
IEEE M. Bilban, S. Vrhovec i M. Zorec Karlovšek, "Blood Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse", Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, vol.54, br. 4, str. 253-259, 2003. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/342. [Citirano: 08.12.2021.]
Sažetak The biological, clinical and social effects of alcohol abuse call for objective and specific biomarkers of alcohol-related diseases and early detection of alcohol consumers at risk. Alcohol abusers may exhibit several clinical and/or chemical changes. Changes in parameters such as gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) may serve as biomarkers of chronic alcoholism. All available biomarkers have two drawbacks. The first is that they indicate adverse effects in a particular organ, but tell little about their aetiology. The second is that they are not sensitive enough to detect abuse before it results in organic impairment. The 1990s have seen the introduction of a new diagnostic biomarker, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT). Reduced concentrations of this biomarker are found in serum after regular high alcohol intake. Relying on literature and their own clinical experience, the authors conclude that CDT seems to meet the clinical criteria of reliability and specificity.