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Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms in Melanoma

Franjo Gruber
Marija Kaštelan
Ines Brajac
Marina Saftić
Vesna Peharda
Leo Čabrijan
Zrinka Stanić Žgombić
Edita Simonić

Puni tekst: engleski pdf 73 Kb

str. 147-152

preuzimanja: 1.784



Recent studies have indicated an increasing incidence of melanoma worldwide. Although UV signature mutations
are found rarely in melanoma cells, there is some evidence that intense intermittent exposure to sunlight can induce
melanocyte tumorigenesis, and this is also observed after UV irradiation in some animals. The purpose of this paper is to
review some of the most important mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Genetic studies showed the familiar
melanoma is linked to the mutation or deletion of the suppressor gene CDKN2A, and perhaps to CDK4. Studies
showed that BRAF mutation is frequent in primary and metastatic melanoma cells but also in naevocytic nevi. This mutation
activates the RAF/MEK pathway. Exposure to UV radiation induces immunosuppression. Recent investigations
showed that chemokines, angiogenesis, metalloproteinases can play a role in the mechanism of metastasis. In spite of
these advances the initiating events are still not completely understood. In conclusion, the pathogenesis of melanoma is
very complex because numerous genetic and epigenetic factors are implicated in its development and progression, but
some of the showed mechanisms can be targets for new therapies.

Ključne riječi

suppressor genes; oncogenes; pathogenesis; therapy

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