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Clay pipes from the archaeological site ‘Kula Gornji ugao’ in Dubrovnik

Branka Milošević orcid id ; Muzej grada Umaga
Nikolina Topić orcid id ; American College of Management and Technology, Dubrovnik

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 1.800 Kb

str. 297-328

preuzimanja: 1.297



The article deals with finds of clay pipes at site “Kula Gornji ugao” in the historical centre of Dubrovnik. All finds belong to the eastern or Mediterranean pipe type, which is represented in this case by finds of pipesof the Austro–Hungarian, Turkish, Italian or Zelovo subtypes. Fragments belonging to the Austro–Hungarian and Turkish workshops are the most numerous ones, whereas the Zelovo and Italian productions are only represented by one fragment. Among the Austro–Hungarian pipes, the most numerous ones are those with the inscription of the then known workshop centre Schemnitz, present–day Banska Štiavnica in Slovakia. On one side of the stem, those pipes have stamps with inscriptions: BETTLHEIM / SCHEMNITZ, M. HONIG WE / SCHEMNITZ, M. HÖNIG WE / SCHEMNITZ, M. HÖNIG SOHN/ SCHEMNITZ and on the other side small stamps that are filled with a portrait, coat of arms, vase with flowers (?) and a dot (?). A larger number of pipes were preserved that have an oval–shaped stamp which contains the workshop name LEOPOLD / GROSS. Next to the name is also a small round stamp with an imprinted illustration of an anchor. Pipes with the workshop name GEORG / WEIGAND are represented by four fragments. Next to the rectangular stamp with the afore–mentioned name is also a small round stamp that is filled with floral motifs. Two fragments carry the inscription WOLF / HALPHEN, next to the rectangular stamp is also a round one in which floral motifs were probably imprinted. Fragments with the inscription PHILIPP / KONRAD, ANTON KILLMAYER (?) and CÖLN / CAFÉ are represented by one exemplar. The first two are made of orange clay whereas the pipe with the inscription CÖLN / CAFÉ is made of white clay and belongs to the so–called Coffeehouse type. Apart from the commonly produced clay pipes–with stamps and characteristic shapes– we also find one pipe with a glaze coat over the clay. All those pipes were made in the area of Central and Southern Europe. It is not known where all workshop centres were located, but we know that Phillip Konrad’s workshop was in Theresienfeld in Austria. The pipes were produced in the moulding technique in shades of orange, red, black and white clay. The stem is regularly shorter than the bowl and has the producer’s stamp on it. All pipes have one connecting hole for the tobacco. Amog these finds there is only one Italian pipe type and is decorated with shallow canellures which have decoration of circles above them. Italian pipes were mostly produced in Chioggia because the area abandone with clay of good quality, but also in Bassano which workshops used to produce foreign brands. Our pipe derives from other workshop center but probably was made in northitalian area. The Turkish pipes are very diversely decorated. Some have smaller round or oval stamps displaying the workshop labels in Arabic letters or floral motifs, while others are painted in red paint while others are painted in red and one is glazed. The fragments discussed in this article are decorated with a wide range of floral and geometric motifs; on the ridge is often a V–line that is imprinted by a serrated wheel or straight lines. There are two exemplars represented that have bowls in shape of a flower calyx. Three fragments particularly stand out, their bowls are flattened and turned into a disc–shaped base. All pipes have a connecting hole for the tobacco. They were made in shades of orange, yellow–grey, ochre, red and one exemplar in white–gray clay. It is not easy to determine the workshop centres in which the Turkish pipe type was produced, but they surely were located in the area of the Ottoman Empire, i.e. in the territory of Europe or Asia Minor. Pipes were produced in the village Zelovo in Sinj in the 18th and 19th century. It is the only workshop centre that has been registered in Croatia so far. The Zelovo production is characterized by a combination of Turkish, Venetian and Austrian influences. They were produced in moulds and had often reticular decorations, the initials of the master craftsman in the mould and sometimes the production year as well. In this case, the Zelovo production is represented only by one fragment. There is a very diverse range of pipes that originate from different workshops in Central and Southern Europe and the Asia Minor region as it is revealed to us by their shape, decorative motifs and stamps. The most numerous ones are fragments from Austro– Hungarian pipes, the Turkish ones are slightly less numbered whereas the Zelovo and Italian production are represented by only on fragment. All finds belong to the time from the 17th to 20th century and bear testimony to the popularity of tobacco use by means of ceramic pipes, but also to the trade relations between Dubrovnik and various workshop centres.

Ključne riječi

Tobacco, Dubrovnik, clay pipes, Kula Gornji ugao, Austro–Hungarian type, Italian type, Turskih type, Zelovo type

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