Similarities and differences of pedagogical models of Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner and Célestin Freinet
This article tries to point-out the importance of alternative schools which have existed in the world parallel with public schools from the first half of the 20th century. The method of comparative analysis shows three original pedagogical models: Montessori pedagogy, Waldorf schools and Freinet’s movement. Special attention was given to theoretical theses and didactic-methodological particularities of these pedagogical models. Steiner’s pedagogy is based on anthroposophy; Montessori’s pedagogy is based on anthropology, while in Freinet’s pedagogy work is fundamental. The models share the following characteristics: freedom in a broader sense, respect for the child as an individual, individual work of the student, learning through research, stimulation of group cooperation, use of different methods and materials in the organization of learning activities, and generally better preparation for life in society. By analyzing similarities and differences between alternative pedagogical models and those used in public schools, we can conclude that the overall organization of teaching classes differs considerably from that in public schools. Since there are only few schools in Croatia that work following the conceptions of these pedagogies, the main purpose of this work is to implement these interesting didactic-methodical solutions in the existing public schools and by doing so to enhance the development of pluralism in education.
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