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Krasić Stjepan ; Pontificia Università S. Tommaso, Rim

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str. 67-107

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In the 13th century, two mendicant religious orders, the Dominican and the Franciscan, spread throughout the whole of Europe, promoting the ideas of equality, justice, piety and voluntary renunciation of ties to property. No more than a decade after the establishment of the order (1216), the Dominicans started to settle in the lands of the Croats. This preaching order, which primarily operated in urban units – in the centre of political, social, cultural and religious events – founded a base in Trogir some little time before 1243, and in the 1260s this became a monastery. Under the influence of the Cistercians, the Dominicans built hall churches, which differed according to the functionality of the rite. The Dominican churches were meant primarily for the laity, the choirs for the religious. The Trogir monastery in its typology follows the rules of construction – the spaces are arranged around a cloister – the church, choir, sacristy, bell tower, capitulary hall, kitchen, refectory, locutory and garden, while on the top there was dormitory and library. The Dominicans arrived in Trogir from the Split monastery of St Catherine of Alexandria. The town magistrate, Nikola Albertinov, who had the presentation to the little church of St Francis of Assisi in the area of Pasike, gave them a little church to the west of the city walls. After conflicts with the Trogir bishop, in 1365, Pope Clement IV acknowledged the lawfulness of their possession of the church and approved a plan for the construction of the monastery. However, around 1325, the church was enlarged, and in 1372, thanks to the generosity of the Kažotić and Andreis families, was extended, when the relief of the lunette of the main portal was made by Niccolò Dente known as Cervo from Venice. In the second half of the 16th century during a visitation by A. Valiero, six altars are mentioned, with a beautiful old altarpiece on the altar of St Catherine of Alexandria. In the early 17th century, as well as the large church, the Trogir Dominicans also had the Church of St Rochus alongside the southern walls of the city and the Church of St Mary outside the walls, with three altars. At the beginning of the 15th century the community used a house south of the church that was knocked down in 1412 to make room for the construction of the city walls on the town’s south side. Today’s monastery building was put up in 1425, as witnessed by the inscription incorporated into the eastern wall of the cloister. Major alterations were undertaken on the building of the monastery in the 19th and 20th centuries, when military units were quartered in it; and the monastery was thoroughly renovated before World War I. During the time of the English bombing in 1944, the northern wing was completely demolished, the roof of the church was destroyed, and the eastern and western wings suffered minor damage. The most celebrated member of the Trogir Dominican monastery was the 107 Blessed Augustin Kažotić (1260-1323) from a well-regarded Trogir family. He studied at the university of Paris, wrote several theological treatises, and held the offices of bishop of Zagreb and of Lucera. Also deserving of mention is the prior of the monastery in Trogir, baccalaureate and doctor of theology Vinko Andreis, who urged both the doge and the pope to come to the aid of Croatia against the Ottomans. In 1515 he was appointed papal commissioner for Illyria. In the 15th century, calligrapher and illuminator Fra Bartul was at work in the monastery, and another prominent figure is the priest Nikola Milinović, founder of the monastery of Holy Cross on Čiovo. The particular importance of the Trogir monastery came out at the end of the 16th and in the early 17th century, when a branch of the Zadar General College was opened in Trogir, with two degrees of university studies. At the end of the 18th century, the Trogir and Čiovo Dominicans were particularly prominent for their education in the theological and humanist sciences.

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