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Regionalisation of Croatian agriculture in common agricultural policy of the EU

Ferdo Bašić ; Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Agronomski fakultet, Zagreb, Hrvatska

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 993 Kb

str. 143-176

preuzimanja: 2.940



Agricultural regionalization as science-based evaluation of environmental conditions and some kind of “inventory” of Croatian agro-sphere, shows what is contribution of the Croatian agriculture to the “common table of the EU-agriculture”. Using modern methodology, we create three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountainous with two, as well as the Adriatic one with three agricultural sub-regions. Outbreak of European agriculture is Neolithic Vučedol civilisation in Pannonian region, contemporaneous with Sumer in Mesopotamia. Croatian origin is also the deep trace which in the history of European agriculture has placed a specific crop rotation practiced in “epoch of horse” in Pannonian region, so known “The three-field crop rotation of Slavonia”, as a arable farming system in which one third of arable land of farm was under maize as row crop (fodder crop), follows one third with wheat as crop of high density (for bread) and one with legume - common vetch (fodder crop for horse). Taking in account pedo-hygiene, soil biodiversity, microbiological activity, maintenance of humus content and soil fertility, this system, based on experience is sustainable and the best one practised in history of land management. On the level of sub-regions we estimate and describe the actual agro-ecological conditions, practised land use and farming systems, soil degradation processes as well as a framework of requirements of investment in land reclamation practices; hydro-technical (drainage and irrigation) and/or agro-technical (deep loosening, liming, increase of soil supply by humus and available nutrients). The essential problem of soil degradation is decline of soil organic matter (SOM), as consequence of long term decrease of stock density (expressed in SU/ha of cultivated land), which is bellow of minimal requirements, with the tendency of constant decreasing in all agricultural regions of Croatia. Based on frequency of soil degradation processes we estimate next sequence: Erosion (water, wind, tillage) > Soil organic matter - humus decline > Soil compaction > Soil sealing > Landslides > Soil contamination > Decline of soil biodiversity. Out of any question is the fact that origin of the first three and the last one of processes is land management – soil tillage system and practices in concrete agricultural region. Investment in land reclamation is “never ended story”, so if continue the long-term stagnation of investment, it may jeopardize the harmonious development of agriculture and rural development. Hydro technical reclamation, especially irrigation, which is actually practised on bellow than 1% of arable land, means under the minimum requirements, would pave the way to safe and stable cultivation of all major field crops, vegetables and fruits. It is at the same time a way to Croatian agriculture has been transformed from stable importer to stable exporter of food of high and recognizable quality. Achieving this goal requires the consensus of all; the first farmers, the academic and professional community and the circle of decision-maker.
At all levels in Croatian agriculture, from farm to university and government are influenced academic educated professionals. Their knowledge in agronomy, awareness and sensibility for actual economic and environmental problems are guarantee that is real to expect a contribution of Croatian agriculture to improving the competitiveness of agricultural sector, increasing of environment quality and quality of life on our common EU-territory.

Ključne riječi

regionalization of agriculture; agricultural regions and sub regions soil degradation

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