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The Bosnian Beylerbey and Herzegovinian Sancakbey and the Diplomacy of the Dubrovnik Republic

Vesna Miović Perić

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 169 Kb


str. 121-164

preuzimanja: 1.663



Being posted in the vicinity of Dubrovnik, the Bosnian beylerbeys and the Herzegovinian sancakbeys were among the most significant East officials that Dubrovnik had to deal with. They represented a powerful state that was very important for Dubrovnik. At the same time, however, they were quite autonomous in their duties, and provided with scarce incomes. Following the practicies in Istanbul and Bosnia alike, Ragusan diplomacy resorted to gifts, money, and services. Among skills of a good diplomate was the ability to find a personal approach, that is, to estimate the expenses to be conceded. Several series in the Dubrovnik State Archives (e.g., the letters and instructions of the Senate to its envoys in Bosnia, the Senate records, Turkish letters, etc.) contain considerable evidence on all the activities to which the Ragusan authorities resorted over the years in order to develop and maintain good relations with these two Turkish administrators in Bosnia. Since the day of their installation, the Ragusans would honor them with ordinary (It. ordinario, solito), habitual gifts (e.g., money, cloths, sugar, candles, spices, and sweets) that were presented to them by Ragusan representatives during ceremonies. On other occasions they received extraordinary (It. estraordinario) gifts, including money. The Ottomans themselves were in constant pursuit of a variety of favors and services (medical care, masons, stone masons, etc.), ordered foodstuffs of all kinds (sweets, fruit, candied fruit, oil, and beverages, both alcoholic and non-alcoholic), luxuries, and useful everyday products (mirrors, compasses, glasses, geographical charts), as well as animals for sport (hunting dogs and falcons). Gifts, money, and services were the most decisive factors in the Ragusan diplomatic contacts with Ottoman officials. Regardless of the expenditures the Dubrovnik treasury was burdened with and the danger and inconvenience the Ragusan envoys were put to, it was generally viewed that the Ragusan diplomacy in Bosnia was successful. This can be proven by the following: the Ragusan trade business survived through the most unfavorable conditions, in spite of all the bans, obstacles, and burdens; although frequently violated, the Dubrovnik salt monopoly managed to exist, together with the regulation according to which Dubrovnik and Ston were the only permitted marts on the coast between Split and Durrës. With an adequate amount of money and plenty of gifts, the Bosnian high officials protected the Republic from the Venetians and the hostile intentions of the Porte itself.

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