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Facts about phthalate toxicity in humans and their occurrence in alcoholic beverages

Irena Brčić Karačonji orcid id ; Analytical Toxicology and Mineral Metabolism Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia
Sonja Anić Jurica ; Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia
Dario Lasić ; Department of Environmental Protection and Health Ecology, Andrija Štampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia
Karlo Jurica orcid id ; Special Security Operations Directorate, Ministry of the Interior, Zagreb, Croatia

Puni tekst: engleski pdf 344 Kb

str. 81-92

preuzimanja: 1.748



Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol added to plastic to improve its softness, flexibility, and extensibility. They easily migrate from plastic products into the environment because of their physical and chemical properties. This review summarises their characteristics, distribution in the environment, monitoring, use, toxic effects on human health, regulatory limits in different matrices and products, and tolerable daily intake. The studies we have reviewed suggest that phthalates have a potential to affect reproduction and development in humans. Due to the inconsistent data, further studies are needed and, in the meantime, precautionary policies must be implemented. Here we draw attention to the methods of determining phthalate levels in alcoholic beverages and reported levels in plum spirits produced in Croatia. Legally produced and moderately consumed plum spirits do not seem to increase the risk of phthalate toxicity for human health. We conclude with recommendations for the effective monitoring of phthalate exposure in humans and for the implementation of alternative materials in alcohol production.

Ključne riječi

alcoholic drinks, endocrine disruptors, maximum allowed concentration, tolerable daily intake

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Podaci na drugim jezicima: hrvatski

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