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Food-associated intoxication in Pets: Xylitol and Salt

Andreja Prevendar Crnić ; Veterinarski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Hrvatska
Ema Šantek ; Specijalističke veterinarske ambulante Marković, Zagreb, Hrvatska
Jelena Šuran ; Veterinarski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Hrvatska

Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 343 Kb

str. 565-573

preuzimanja: 713



Following a previous study which described poisoning with chocolate, coffee, grapes, macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, this paper described poisoning in dogs with the natural sweetener xylitol and sodium chloride (salt). It has been found that in dogs, contrary to humans, intravenous administration of xylitol causes insulin secretion followed by a decrease in blood glucose levels, and ingestion of xylitol is associated with the loss of liver function. Vomiting is often reported as the first clinical sign. Clinical signs of hypoglycaemia, including lethargy, ataxia, collapse and seizures may develop within 30-60 minutes after ingestion, though also later. In dogs with liver dysfunction, lethargy, jaundice, vomiting, signs of coagulopathy can be seen. Diarrhoea and intestinal gas production can also occur, and liver failure may potentially cause a deadly outcome. Treatment is performed by intravenous administration of dextrose or by using protective therapy for the liver and antioxidants or may be more complex, depending on the clinical signs of poisoning. Salt poisoning is usually directly related to restricted access by water and hypernatremia
as excessive salt intake rarely occurs in pets. The acute toxic dose of sodium chloride in dogs is 4 g/kg of body weight, and the mechanism of the toxic effect is complex. Clinical signs of salt poisoning in dogs become apparent when the serum sodium concentration is higher than 170 mEq/L, and severe neural symptoms occur at levels greater than 180 mEq/L. The first signs after the oral intake of salt into the body are vomiting and diarrhoea. Depending on the length of exposure and the degree of hypernatremia, signs of nerve- related disorders include: depression, lethargy, muscular rigidity, tremors, polyuria, polydipsia, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, terminal seizures and coma. Elimination of excess sodium from the body is the primary goal of therapy, i.e. a slow return the animal to normal water and electrolyte balance. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness about potentially toxic substances for pets among veterinarians and animal owners, so they can act preventively by avoiding their storage in places accessible to pets.

Ključne riječi

poisoning by foods and seasonings, xylitol, salt, dog, cat

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Podaci na drugim jezicima: hrvatski

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