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https://doi.org/10.21857/yl4okf3k49

CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION OF THE PORTRAIT OF MARIA THERESA FROM THE VARAŽDIN CITY MUSEUM

Maša Maria Štrok orcid id orcid.org/0000-0002-4059-3168 ; Hrvatski restauratorski Zavod


Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 23.919 Kb

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Puni tekst: engleski pdf 23.919 Kb

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Sažetak

This article is about the conservation and restoration carried out on a portrait
of Maria Theresa from the 18th century attributed to the workshop of painter
Martin van Meytens.
The painting is an oil on canvas and portrays Maria Theresa, Hapsburg sovereign
of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Transylvania, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria
and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, she was
Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress. During
her rule (1740 – 1780) she introduced a number of reforms in foreign and
domestic policies.
This painting, painted during the first few years of her rule, shows her whole
posture in celebratory brocade robe, as she stands next to a richly carved table
with a solemnly decorated cushion and two crowns of the Austrian archduke.
The dimensions of the painting are 203 cm x 140 cm (height/width).
The painting had undergone two previous restorations, in 1857 and 1993.
Based on documentation, an interesting detail was added during the 1993 restoration:
in the lower right corner of the painting, in the overpaint layer there is a
visible signature Meytensen pinxit 1857 – even though the painter died in 1770.
It is therefore assumed that he was signed during the first restoration of the painting
in 1857, led by painter Mayerwieser. During the last restoration in 2014,
it was concluded that this signature is not correct, the correct one is Mayerwieser
renoviert 1857. Because of the fragility of painted layer on this part of the
canvas, the signature was cleaned only superficially by thinning of the yellowy
varnish with a mild solution.
Because of the incomplete and unclear documentation following the 1993
restoration, it was very hard to determinate all of the zones with layers of overpaint
and validate the decision to remove them completely or only partially. After
the probing it was concluded that the green color from the robe and turquoise
color from the right sleeve were both removed during previous restorations.
The dark background with visible architecture and drapery was also partially removed.
Additional probes, including IC and UV scans, stratigraphy of the painted
layer, removal probing of tarnished varnish with impurities and overpaint, were
conducted to determine the zones of preserved varnish and overpaint as well as
the quality of fill composition in the previous intervention. Stratigraphic cross-sectional analysis showed that during 1857 restoration,
the painting was tanned with dark glaze based on saccharides and protein binder.
Toning was executed without the removal of dirt, rust and old varnish. Analysis
of XRF images of the green overpaint layer from the robe detected barium white
and green chromium pigments. These pigments originated in the early 19th century
which proves the previous conclusion of a huge overpaint presence.
Considerably brighter background behind the image of Maria Theresa was
discovered during the removal of impurities and overpaint.
After the probing and cleaning of the face of the painting, canvas inserts
were partially removed as well as linen strips from the edges on the back of the
painting. Inserts from the previous restoration works did not follow the form of
damage, they were square in shape and attached with hardened, inadequate
glue that was unevenly applied on the original canvas. Linen strips were also
inadequately formed so they all had to be removed.
The whole back of the painting was mechanically and chemically cleaned,
and then strainghtened on the thermal vacuum table. During the procedure,
even craquelures on the face of the painting descended. All damage was repaired
with prefabricated linen adjusted to the shape of the damage. Inserts in the level
of original canvas were fixed with Beva Film and Japanese paper, and the cracks
on the canvas were bonded with powdered adhesive applied with heat shrink.
After the damage was repaired, both face and the back of the painting were
treated with a synthetic adhesive, and fixed on a new canvas doubled on the
thermal vacuum table.
After doubling and additional straightening, damages in the ground layer
were reconstituted with methyl cellulose filler of the appropriate pigment and
a smaller amount of acrylic adhesive. During this process, the structure of the
canvas was followed. Finally the painting was monuted on the new wooden underframe.
Retouche underlying was executed in gouache technique, in a lighter shade
of the local tone.
After that, the painting was isolated in varnish. The final retouching was
executed in resin glaze, and the painting was additionally protected with a combination
of glossy and matte lacquer in equal proportions.
Except for its artistic value, the painting is unique because of earlier restorations
that caused many discussions to try and come up with optimal solutions
for the conservation and restoration completed in 2014.

Ključne riječi

Hapsburg sovereign, Maria Theresa, Martin van Meytens, Mayerwieser, oil on canvas, earlier restoration, probing, restoration, conservation.

Hrčak ID:

231084

URI

https://hrcak.srce.hr/231084

Podaci na drugim jezicima: hrvatski

Posjeta: 635 *