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Swimming and diving project for youth: aquatic skills and the development of self-esteem

Daniel Frankl ; Department of Physical Education, California State University, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Puni tekst: engleski pdf 876 Kb

str. 14-19

preuzimanja: 112



The purpose of this project was to introduce water safety principles, and teach swimming and diving skills to children-the majority of whom come from low-income families-with the intent of enhancing self-esteem through the mastery of swimming and diving skills, Second, third and fourth graders (N=210) received twenty-one 35-minute swimming lessons at a community swimming center during one school year. Measurements included swimming skills, self-esteem, and selected attitudes toward swimming and diving. Upon completion of the program, the participating classroom teachers were surveyed by an open-ended questionnaire which related attitudes toward the project, and performance of the swimming & diving instructors to the children’s classroom performance and academic achievements. Post-test scores for three intact classrooms (N=78) revealed significant improvements in swimming ability for all participants (t=15.49, p<.0001). The combined group of second and third graders demonstrated increase in self-esteem (n=47, t=3.31, p<.002), as measured on the Battle self-esteem inventory and as reported by the classroom teachers. Based on the available data and the teachers’ comments it was concluded that the "prime teaching time” lost to swimming in the morning hours was recovered with a much improved afternoon session. In addition, the participating classroom teachers reported overall improvement in classroom performance and a higher self-esteem in particular.

Ključne riječi

children, swimming & diving skills, attitudes, self-esteem

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