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Review article

Research on human subjects – historical development, principles and examples of misconduct

Tihana Štojs

Full text: croatian pdf 180 Kb

page 91-111

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Besides the most important concepts and regulations concerning research on human subjects, this paper offers an overview of the development of experimental method and a historical review of unethical experiments with particular emphasis on Nazi experiments as an example of the most severe violation of medical ethics. How the latter encouraged formalization of ethics in research is explained but cases of unethical research on human subjects documented in recent history are also analysed. Finally, some of the ethical dilemmas associated with research on human subjects are discussed – the good of the individual versus the good of society, weighing risks versus benefits and the ethics of using data from Nazi experiments.


experiments on human subjects, informed consent, the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki, Nazi experiments, ethical dilemmas

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