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Archaeological Excavations at the Stari Grad Site in Ivanec 2010

Juraj Belaj   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0001-8953-3820 ; Institute of Archaeology, Zagreb, Croatia
Filomena Sirovica   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0001-6662-8915

Puni tekst: engleski, pdf (838 KB) str. 69-69 preuzimanja: 149* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Belaj, J. i Sirovica, F. (2011). Archaeological Excavations at the Stari Grad Site in Ivanec 2010. Annales Instituti Archaeologici, VII (1), 69-69. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820
MLA 8th Edition
Belaj, Juraj i Filomena Sirovica. "Archaeological Excavations at the Stari Grad Site in Ivanec 2010." Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol. VII, br. 1, 2011, str. 69-69. https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820. Citirano 02.07.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Belaj, Juraj i Filomena Sirovica. "Archaeological Excavations at the Stari Grad Site in Ivanec 2010." Annales Instituti Archaeologici VII, br. 1 (2011): 69-69. https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820
Harvard
Belaj, J., i Sirovica, F. (2011). 'Archaeological Excavations at the Stari Grad Site in Ivanec 2010', Annales Instituti Archaeologici, VII(1), str. 69-69. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820 (Datum pristupa: 02.07.2020.)
Vancouver
Belaj J, Sirovica F. Archaeological Excavations at the Stari Grad Site in Ivanec 2010. Annales Instituti Archaeologici [Internet]. 2011 [pristupljeno 02.07.2020.];VII(1):69-69. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820
IEEE
J. Belaj i F. Sirovica, "Archaeological Excavations at the Stari Grad Site in Ivanec 2010", Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol.VII, br. 1, str. 69-69, 2011. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820. [Citirano: 02.07.2020.]
Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (838 KB) str. 65-69 preuzimanja: 231* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Belaj, J. i Sirovica, F. (2011). Arheološka istraživanja na lokalitetu Stari grad u Ivancu godine 2010.. Annales Instituti Archaeologici, VII (1), 65-69. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820
MLA 8th Edition
Belaj, Juraj i Filomena Sirovica. "Arheološka istraživanja na lokalitetu Stari grad u Ivancu godine 2010.." Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol. VII, br. 1, 2011, str. 65-69. https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820. Citirano 02.07.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Belaj, Juraj i Filomena Sirovica. "Arheološka istraživanja na lokalitetu Stari grad u Ivancu godine 2010.." Annales Instituti Archaeologici VII, br. 1 (2011): 65-69. https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820
Harvard
Belaj, J., i Sirovica, F. (2011). 'Arheološka istraživanja na lokalitetu Stari grad u Ivancu godine 2010.', Annales Instituti Archaeologici, VII(1), str. 65-69. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820 (Datum pristupa: 02.07.2020.)
Vancouver
Belaj J, Sirovica F. Arheološka istraživanja na lokalitetu Stari grad u Ivancu godine 2010.. Annales Instituti Archaeologici [Internet]. 2011 [pristupljeno 02.07.2020.];VII(1):65-69. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820
IEEE
J. Belaj i F. Sirovica, "Arheološka istraživanja na lokalitetu Stari grad u Ivancu godine 2010.", Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol.VII, br. 1, str. 65-69, 2011. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820. [Citirano: 02.07.2020.]

Sažetak
In the period between 10 May and 12 June 2010, the Institute of Archaeology (IARH) conducted the ninth phase of archaeological excavations in Ivanec at the Stari Grad site. This is a continuation of excavations that have been carried out by the IARH at the initiative of the Town of Ivanec since 1998 (Belaj 2008).
In 2010, excavations of the area within the northern, rectangular tower of Stari Grad were completed. Excavations west of the tower commenced, and the area south of the tower, i.e. between the tower and the Gothic St. John’s Church continued. However, the most intensively excavated area was a trial-trench of 4.80 × 7.20 m located east of the northern tower. This was due to the extraordinary features of the structure unearthed beneath the northern tower during the campaign of 2009. Namely, it seems that the foundations represent the remains of the oldest and thus most valuable structure found in the course of the excavations: a Romanesque church.
However, the situation found in this area differs from what was expected. An assumed large defensive trench was unearthed which at an earlier point of time used to surround Stari Grad. Unfortunately, we still cannot claim with certainty that this was really a ditch, as only a smaller part of its southern slopes have been excavated. In favour of the assumption that it was a ditch is the fact that it cut and consequently destroyed the presumed eastern wall of the apse of the newly discovered church, which was precisely the structure that was the primary objective of this year’s excavations. The ditch was later cut by a large long trench extending along the eastern foundations of the northern tower. Consequently, the northern tower represents a newer defence stage of the Old Town, even though the ditch and the tower might have been used in parallel for a while. In the ditch, several filling phases can be identified. The older stage is represented by a smaller number of fills, cut during the construction of the eastern wall of the northern tower, while the newer stage followed after the construction of the northern tower when, after the ditch had been more or less filled to the top, the area east of the tower was covered by a thick layer of yellow clay, which probably served for the final levelling of the terrain. Remains of pillars were identified, set in large holes sunk deep into the lowest fills of the ditches, around which at a later stage the fills were deposited.
Although, unfortunately, the ditch cut the structure identified in the course of earlier excavations, which could represent the eastern wall of the apse of the newly discovered church, the function of the structure is partly also suggested by a grave in which lower leg and foot bones were unearthed. It is located in the presumed apse, and its isolated position speaks in favour of it being connected with the newly discovered church, and not the Gothic Church of St. John.
In this area, south of the ditch, a small amount of paving was also excavated, constructed of medium-sized stones (15-20 cm), bound by firm white plaster and covered with a thinner layer of white plaster. The relationship between this paving (possibly even the structure’s flooring) and the ditch could not be determined exactly.
In the course of the 2010 campaign, the northern tower was completely excavated. The last ten graves were excavated, of which nine were located to the south of the newly discovered building, and one in the presumed apse of the Romanesque church. Excavations also continued in the sector North of the Nave of the Gothic Church of St. John, where 15 graves were researched. On the basis of individual finds, their interrelations and the differences between individual burial phases identified in previous research, the graves were chronologically classified into several burial phases. Several graves, excavated in the north, near the Gothic Church of St. John, can be assigned to the newer burial horizon, which is characterised by the presence of belt buckles and burying the deceased with their arms crossed over their chest or stomach. Some graves with the deceased with their arms laid by their body belong to the medium burial phase. Just as in past excavations, in the graves of this phase no remains of coffins or nails were encountered. An older medium phase stands out which had already been identified in and around St. John’s Church, characterised by burials that do not follow the orientation of St. John’s Church and probably do not belong to the graveyard of this newly discovered, older Romanesque church. An interesting phenomenon, already noticed in previous years among finds from some of these graves, is the occurrence of animal teeth. These appear relatively frequently as grave goods. Probably, they functioned as amulets. This year, the assumption that some graves belonged to the oldest burial phase, usually characterised by stone paving and Bijelo Brdo culture material, could be confirmed solely on the basis of stratigraphic relationships. Among the graves ascribed to this stage, grave 279 stands out. It is a sort of ossuary with the relatively well preserved bones of an adult person which were irregularly arranged in the grave. It seems to be either a secondary burial or a body that had been cut into pieces before its burial. On the burial’s rims large, poorly preserved iron mounts were found. Therefore it seems that the remains were buried in a wooden casket.
Despite a large number of graves, the exceptionally fatty and compact black and brown cultural layer was also preserved in smaller segments. In the black layer, some fragments of house daub, varying in size, were found along with pottery shards, many of which were decorated with a wavy line. In the brown layer, which regularly occurs under the black layer, many pieces of house daub and some provincial classical Roman or Celtic pottery were unearthed.
Among finds unearthed in the 2010 excavations, the largest in number are ceramic vessel shards, particularly from the new era. A large number of stove tile fragments from the same period were also found, as well as many iron nails and other metal artefacts, along with fragments of glass, porcelain, etc. From the Middle Ages, there are mostly fragments of pottery and daub. These were found in the black cultural layer and in numerous fills. As far as special finds are concerned, the decorated or shaped shards of ceramic vessels and stove tiles, several bronze needles, two specimens of coins and various other metal artefacts particularly stand out. Among the newer fills of the ditch, Ferdinand II trimmed three-kreuzer silver coins were unearthed, probably minted in 1622 or 1623. Several fragments of glass bottles and other vessels were found, together with a ceramic whorl and, once again, several examples of animal teeth in graves. The find of a pair of compasses, probably of bronze, and also iron mounts from a smaller coffin from grave 279 particularly stand out.

Ključne riječi
Ivanec; Church of St. John the Baptist; Middle Ages; architecture; mediaeval cemetery; Romanesque period

Hrčak ID: 89820

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/89820

[hrvatski]

Posjeta: 604 *