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New perspectives on ancient fortifications: Vrbovec Castle in Klenovec Humski, archaeological investigations in 2014

Tatjana Tkalčec   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0003-3963-7706 ; Institute of Archaeology, Zagreb, Croatia

Puni tekst: engleski, pdf (2 MB) str. 73-73 preuzimanja: 110* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Tkalčec, T. (2015). New perspectives on ancient fortifications: Vrbovec Castle in Klenovec Humski, archaeological investigations in 2014. Annales Instituti Archaeologici, XI (1), 73-73. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428
MLA 8th Edition
Tkalčec, Tatjana. "New perspectives on ancient fortifications: Vrbovec Castle in Klenovec Humski, archaeological investigations in 2014." Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol. XI, br. 1, 2015, str. 73-73. https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428. Citirano 10.07.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Tkalčec, Tatjana. "New perspectives on ancient fortifications: Vrbovec Castle in Klenovec Humski, archaeological investigations in 2014." Annales Instituti Archaeologici XI, br. 1 (2015): 73-73. https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428
Harvard
Tkalčec, T. (2015). 'New perspectives on ancient fortifications: Vrbovec Castle in Klenovec Humski, archaeological investigations in 2014', Annales Instituti Archaeologici, XI(1), str. 73-73. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428 (Datum pristupa: 10.07.2020.)
Vancouver
Tkalčec T. New perspectives on ancient fortifications: Vrbovec Castle in Klenovec Humski, archaeological investigations in 2014. Annales Instituti Archaeologici [Internet]. 2015 [pristupljeno 10.07.2020.];XI(1):73-73. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428
IEEE
T. Tkalčec, "New perspectives on ancient fortifications: Vrbovec Castle in Klenovec Humski, archaeological investigations in 2014", Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol.XI, br. 1, str. 73-73, 2015. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428. [Citirano: 10.07.2020.]
Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (2 MB) str. 63-73 preuzimanja: 202* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Tkalčec, T. (2015). Novi pogledi na stara obrambena zdanja: burg Vrbovec u Klenovcu Humskom, arheološka istraživanja 2014. godine. Annales Instituti Archaeologici, XI (1), 63-73. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428
MLA 8th Edition
Tkalčec, Tatjana. "Novi pogledi na stara obrambena zdanja: burg Vrbovec u Klenovcu Humskom, arheološka istraživanja 2014. godine." Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol. XI, br. 1, 2015, str. 63-73. https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428. Citirano 10.07.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Tkalčec, Tatjana. "Novi pogledi na stara obrambena zdanja: burg Vrbovec u Klenovcu Humskom, arheološka istraživanja 2014. godine." Annales Instituti Archaeologici XI, br. 1 (2015): 63-73. https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428
Harvard
Tkalčec, T. (2015). 'Novi pogledi na stara obrambena zdanja: burg Vrbovec u Klenovcu Humskom, arheološka istraživanja 2014. godine', Annales Instituti Archaeologici, XI(1), str. 63-73. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428 (Datum pristupa: 10.07.2020.)
Vancouver
Tkalčec T. Novi pogledi na stara obrambena zdanja: burg Vrbovec u Klenovcu Humskom, arheološka istraživanja 2014. godine. Annales Instituti Archaeologici [Internet]. 2015 [pristupljeno 10.07.2020.];XI(1):63-73. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428
IEEE
T. Tkalčec, "Novi pogledi na stara obrambena zdanja: burg Vrbovec u Klenovcu Humskom, arheološka istraživanja 2014. godine", Annales Instituti Archaeologici, vol.XI, br. 1, str. 63-73, 2015. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428. [Citirano: 10.07.2020.]

Sažetak
Archaeological research was conducted in 2014 on the south side of the site and divided into three domains: 1/ the southeast and south castle courtyard, next to the tower itself; 2/ the tower walls and the tower interior and 3/ area around the tower next to the southeast and southwest walls, outside the castle (fig. 1). Investigations into the southeast part of the courtyard led to excavations of over 4.5 meters. Upper dark humus layers contained finds from the first half of the 16th century. Underneath those layers, SU 220 layer of ruins was reached, consisting of mostly yellow sand mortar and rocks, from larger blocks to bigger stones. The very top of this layer was damaged by fire (SU 217). A probable drainage duct could be detected. In the SU 220 layer, cut stones were found, as well as certain kinds of carved stones as part of an interior wall. Under the SU 220 ruins, there were layers of 13th century finds, confirmed by radiocarbon analysis (SU 231 and SU 232).
The complex issue of various building stages of the tower (compare fig. 1 and fig. 16), calls for a more in-depth analysis of the existing state, documentation of all layers and finds before finally interpreting the building sequence of individual walled structures.
The interior of the tower is small (2.80 (east-west) x 2.61 m /north-south/). It contains layers of burnt remains from the 16th century and two stages of plaster floor, with a layer of sterile yellow clay between them. The walls of this small interior were also covered in plaster in the first phase, that is, of the lower floor. The lower floor itself lies on the walled tower, there is no contact with the bedrock. The tower interior, therefore, is a walled structure.
In line with previous research along the southwest side of the tower, it has been confirmed that there is a layer missing on the southeast in SU 003 – layer of medieval ruins. However, underneath the humus, there is SU 194 (brown-yellow grainy sand/malter). It contains late medieval pottery finds from the 16th century or late 15th c. Under SU 194, there is a concentration of reddish-pink rubble with brick fragments (SU 236). This rubble had very little material in general, but what it did have can be identified as 15th/16th-century pottery. Under SU 236, there is an unstable bedrock layer or parts of bedrock. This is where 13th-century layers are missing, which is telling when attempting to interpret the castle's walled structures.

Ključne riječi
medieval archaeology; castle; 13th to 16th c.; profane architecture; Romanesque; Gothic; Klenovec Humski; Hrvatsko zagorje; northwestern Croatia

Hrčak ID: 148428

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/148428

[hrvatski]

Posjeta: 551 *