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Self-Portraits of Helias, a 14th-century notary from Zadar

Emil Hilje   ORCID icon orcid.org/0000-0002-2675-9491 ; Department of Art History, University of Zadar, Croatia

Puni tekst: engleski, pdf (4 MB) str. 81-102 preuzimanja: 110* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Hilje, E. (2016). Self-Portraits of Helias, a 14th-century notary from Zadar. Ars Adriatica, (6), 81-102. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705
MLA 8th Edition
Hilje, Emil. "Self-Portraits of Helias, a 14th-century notary from Zadar." Ars Adriatica, vol. , br. 6, 2016, str. 81-102. https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705. Citirano 28.02.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Hilje, Emil. "Self-Portraits of Helias, a 14th-century notary from Zadar." Ars Adriatica , br. 6 (2016): 81-102. https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705
Harvard
Hilje, E. (2016). 'Self-Portraits of Helias, a 14th-century notary from Zadar', Ars Adriatica, (6), str. 81-102. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705 (Datum pristupa: 28.02.2020.)
Vancouver
Hilje E. Self-Portraits of Helias, a 14th-century notary from Zadar. Ars Adriatica [Internet]. 2016 [pristupljeno 28.02.2020.];(6):81-102. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705
IEEE
E. Hilje, "Self-Portraits of Helias, a 14th-century notary from Zadar", Ars Adriatica, vol., br. 6, str. 81-102, 2016. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705. [Citirano: 28.02.2020.]
Puni tekst: hrvatski, pdf (4 MB) str. 81-102 preuzimanja: 554* citiraj
APA 6th Edition
Hilje, E. (2016). Autoportreti zadarskog bilježnika Ilije iz 14. stoljeća. Ars Adriatica, (6), 81-102. Preuzeto s https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705
MLA 8th Edition
Hilje, Emil. "Autoportreti zadarskog bilježnika Ilije iz 14. stoljeća." Ars Adriatica, vol. , br. 6, 2016, str. 81-102. https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705. Citirano 28.02.2020.
Chicago 17th Edition
Hilje, Emil. "Autoportreti zadarskog bilježnika Ilije iz 14. stoljeća." Ars Adriatica , br. 6 (2016): 81-102. https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705
Harvard
Hilje, E. (2016). 'Autoportreti zadarskog bilježnika Ilije iz 14. stoljeća', Ars Adriatica, (6), str. 81-102. Preuzeto s: https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705 (Datum pristupa: 28.02.2020.)
Vancouver
Hilje E. Autoportreti zadarskog bilježnika Ilije iz 14. stoljeća. Ars Adriatica [Internet]. 2016 [pristupljeno 28.02.2020.];(6):81-102. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705
IEEE
E. Hilje, "Autoportreti zadarskog bilježnika Ilije iz 14. stoljeća", Ars Adriatica, vol., br. 6, str. 81-102, 2016. [Online]. Dostupno na: https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705. [Citirano: 28.02.2020.]

Sažetak
Notarial signs serving to authenticate private and
public legal documents emerged in Dalmatia during the
12th century, and by the late Middle Ages they had become
a mandatory part of official documents written on
parchment for the legal parties. These signs were graphic
as a rule: more or less elaborate drawings with decorative
motifs, occasionally with integrated typography, yet
without any figural elements. Among the very diverse
forms of notarial signs preserved in Croatian archives,
that of Split’s canon and Zadar’s notary Helias deserves
special attention: instead of using a simple graphic symbol,
he depicted a young man’s torso, which for several
reasons may be presumed to be his self-portrait. More
than fifty notarial signs by Helias have been preserved,
but it may be presumed that he produced more than a
thousand during more than two decades of his career as
a notary.
These signs are drawing of very small dimensions (3 x
1.5 cm on the average) and most probably not a result of
“artistic” ambition, presuming that such terminology applies
at all to the visual production of the time. As many
other literate men, Helias probably indulged in drawing
and incorporated some of this inclination and skill into
his work in a peculiar manner. Over the period of two
decades, the depicted figure went through several transformations.
Starting from a relatively realistic and quite
detailed depiction, in the second phase Helias simplified
the drawing and enhanced its elements of caricature,
ending with a partially stylized and unified version of his
sign. Generally speaking, his drawings were closer to the
genre of caricature than an official visual representation,
which is why he could style them rather freely as compared
to the norms that could be observed in the professional
circles, especially in the monumental painting of
the 14th century. Despite the fact that they seem somehow
timeless, their visual features indicate certain knowledge
of the formal language of representative painting. Helias’s
skilful handling of lines and the ease with which he used
a minimum of expressive devices to outline not only the
portrait itself, but also the psychological characteristics
of the depicted person, are basically a legacy of Gothic
visual culture.
Self-portrait as a form, albeit absent at least declaratively
from medieval monumental painting, was nevertheless
present, even if quite rarely and only in isolated
cases, in medieval miniature painting (e.g. the self-portraits
of St. Dunstan, the notary Vigil, the painter Hildebertus
and his assistant Everwinusa, friar Rufillus, the
nun Gude, the miniature painter Matthew Paris, or the
illuminator Richard de Montbaston and his wife Jeanne).
Nevertheless, the paucity of such examples, as well as
the spatial and temporal (partly also cultural) distance,
makes it difficult to assess the place of Helias’s self-portraits
within a broader context. In any case, the group
of some fifty portraits from the 14th century, regardless
of their dimensions and character, is certainly a peculiar
phenomenon in the context of European visual culture.
The key point is thereby not the artistic quality of the
drawings, but rather the variety of visual communication
in 14th-century Dalmatia.

Ključne riječi
self-portrait; drawing; priest Helias; 14th century; Zadar

Hrčak ID: 170705

URI
https://hrcak.srce.hr/170705

[hrvatski]

Posjeta: 884 *