Sažetak The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of five triticale accessions and to perform reciprocal crosses involving wheat 1D chromosome in early generations. Morphological, cytological and seed protein analysis was applied in order to select the best individuals among initial triticale strains. Individual selection for spike traits was performed followed by chromosome examination and seed protein analysis. One hexaploid line (2n=42) and an octoploid strain (2n=56) with the D genome from Triticum aestivum L. cv. Mironovskaya 808, were the most distant among all triticale studied. They differed from each other on almost all traits analyzed, including storage proteins encoded at the loci of four genomes. Cytologically fixed plants of the two lines were involved in reciprocal crosses. Selected individuals in F2 generation, containing 1D chromosome through the presence of the subunit pair 5+10, were selfed and measured for six traits. According to HMW glutenins and secalins, F3 seeds were divided in eleven genotypes, among which G2 (2*-2r+6.5r-7+9- 5+10-d2) and G5 (1-2r+6.5r-7+9/9r-5+10-d2) were the most frequently distributed, 14.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Some of them expressed structural changes marked by combining alleles in A- and B-genomes and d1 and d2 in Gli-R2 loci. Our data suggested that selection in crosses between 6x and 8x triticales appeared as an effective approach for transferring 1D chromosome of a particular wheat variety into hexaploid triticale in association with diverse glutenin and secalin compositions.