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Cognitive Representation of Numbers in Children of Different Ages


Puni tekst: hrvatski pdf 243 Kb

str. 563-577

preuzimanja: 868



The aim of this paper was to check and compare the cognitive
representation of numbers in three groups of children: preschool
(N=30), first-grade schoolchildren (N=31) and second-grade
(N=30) elementary schoolchildren. In accordance with the
developmental theory of understanding numbers it was
presupposed that younger children construct numbers
as wholes composed of single elements, while first and
second-grade schoolchildren have several more complex
constructions. The examinees’ task was to present five numbers
given in random order by using squares for ones and tens. In
the second attempt the examinees were supposed to present the
same numbers in a different, new way. The children’s correct
constructions were divided into the following categories:1)
representations one-by-one, 2) canonical representations and 3)
non-canonical representations. The results indicate that there
are no differences between girls and boys in the tasks
completed. Analyses with regard to the children’s age
demonstrate that in the first attempt of construction the
second-grade children have less one-by-one representations
and more canonical representations than the other two groups
of examinees. In non-canonical representations there are no
differences among the groups examined. When analysing the
correct constructions in the second attempt, there are no
differences among the three groups of examinees in the
one-by-one constructions. Pre-school children have
a larger number of canonical representations than
second-grade children, and a smaller number of
non-canonical representations than first and second-grade
children. Second-grade children have shown greater ability than
pre-school children in constructing a given number in two
different ways. The results obtained are in accordance with the
presuppositions of the developmental theory of understanding

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