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John Fagan ; Genetic ID, Cert ID, FoodChain, Fairfield, Iowa 52556, USA

Puni tekst: engleski pdf 4.845 Kb

str. 211-235

preuzimanja: 1.713



Virtually all scientists agree that the commonly used methods for inserting new genes into the genome of a crop plant (genetic engineering or genetic modification): (1) are imprecise and uncontrolled, (2) can impact biological functioning unpredictably, and (3) can lead to unintended harm to health and the environment. The intentional use of GMOs (genetically engineered crop varieties) is prohibited in organic agriculture and food production. However, the increasing use of GMOs in conventional agriculture in certain countries poses an increasingly serious challenge to the integrity of organic. This is because GMO use by conventional farmers creates substantial risk that organic foods will be unintentionally contaminated with GMOs through cross-pollination in the field and accidental admixture during storage, transport, and processing. Consumers believe that “organic means no GMOs.” Yet, evaluation of the actual extent of GMO risk for organic agriculture in Europe, Japan, and North America, leads to the conclusion that the gap between consumers’ expectations and industry practice is the most significant challenge facing the organic movement today. We discuss approaches to addressing this challenge. On the micro-level, GMO testing, traceability systems, segregation procedures and sourcing strategies can be used to control the GMO risk in organic production systems. On the macro-level, the GMO challenge can be addressed through industry-wide cooperation to successfully manage over-arching challenges, such as establishing sustainable supplies of non-GM seed and critical ingredients, and through strict regional and national controls on cultivation of GMOs. Examples of such initiatives from both Europe and North America will be presented.

Ključne riječi

Organic Agriculture; Genetic Engineering; Sustainable Agriculture; Environment; Food Safety

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