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Original scientific paper


Arjana Miljak ; Filozofski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu Odsjek za pedagogiju

Full text: croatian pdf 322 Kb

page 235-249

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Full text: english pdf 114 Kb

page 236-236

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Full text: german pdf 108 Kb

page 250-250

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Numerous studies have acknowledged the unsuccessful attempts of educational reforms during the 1990-s. Most authors emphasize (only) one relatively successful example of the reform in Chicago. It was a nongovernmental reform project, carried out on a huge number of institutions in the course of 8 to 10 years. Neither the theory about what would be changed nor the curriculum has been determined in advance. Instead of that, the theory and curriculum were built (or co-constructed) during the work in practice. The authors of this reform project came to the conclusion that it was necessary to first create inner and outer infrastructure for implementation of the high-quality educational process and adequate organization of the institution, and thereupon to (evaluate) control. In reality it is usually the contrary. In England, as a markedly centralized educational system, in which everything — from curriculum to legislation, inspection, control, etc. — comes from the top administration, nothing important has been accomplished concerning the crucial goal — enhancement of achievement of all pupils. Educational institutions realize that external reform-interventions have no impact either on their practice or their pupils’ results. Therefore, they individually direct their efforts on searching for the solution which could directly influence their pupils’ better performance. In the states where there is no centralized administration, various changes in the system are enabled, most usually in the form of wide choice of reform projects, even the possibility of adapting the project to each institution specifically. Examining the process of implementation of changes, it is concluded that it is always a process of co-construction. By co-construction we mean the process of joint building of theory (about changes) and curriculum, which is created and developed in interaction with real people, real problems and in a certain social context. Completely contrary to the standard perspective, it is argued that schools have more impact on changing reforms (theories) than the reforms change schools. In the early education in developed countries, especially in Reggio kindergartens and in New Zealand, the starting position is exactly the proposition we have emphasised. In those countries it is held that not only curriculum but also the educational theory should be co-constructed in educational practice. Accordingly, there is no finished or defined curriculum, and it is being co-constructed from year to year, in accordance with the development of theory and practice. Numerous investigations and studies corroborate that.


curriculum; national curriculum; implementation; reform; centralized reforms; co-construction; evaluation; scaling; authentic school improvement; projection of transfer product

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