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Original scientific paper

Effects of soy flour on the quality attributes of gluten free bread produced from breadfruit flour

Stephen O. Arinola orcid id ; Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
John O. Akingbala ; Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

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This study evaluated the proximate composition, loaf quality attributes and sensory acceptability of gluten free bread produced from breadfruit flour as affected by soy flour. Five samples of breadfruit flour containing soy flour in the following proportions 100%:0%; 95%:5%; 90%:10%; 85%:15% and 80%:20% respectively, were produced. Dough yield of these breadfruit flours was estimated and bread samples produced from breadfruit flours using sourdough method were evaluated for proximate composition, loaf quality attributes (loaf height, specific loaf volume, loaf firmness, loaf porosity and loaf elasticity) and sensory acceptability using standard methods. Energy value was calculated using the Atwater factor. Bread produced from wheat flour using straight dough method served as a control. The values of dough yield of breadfruit flours (238.7 – 264.7%) were significantly (p≤0.05) higher than that (177.1%) of the control. Most proximate parameters of bread produced from breadfruit flour increased with the addition of soy flour with range value of 33.5 – 37.3% moisture, 3.2 - 7.6% crude protein, 1.58 – 2.99% crude fat, 1.98 - 2.86% ash, 1.69 - 2.01% crude fibre and 50.5 – 54.3% carbohydrate. Bread produced from breadfruit flour had significantly (p≤0.05) higher ash and crude fibre contents than the control. Energy values of the bread samples were in the range of 244. 2 - 262.5 kcal/100g. Notable bread loaf quality attributes were loaf height 4.3 – 4.5 cm, specific loaf volume 1.2 – 1.5 cm3/g, loaf firmness 86.7 -96.7%, loaf porosity 38.9 – 48.1% and loaf elasticity (crumb springiness) 3.3 - 10.0%. Addition of soy flour, especially at 15% level, to breadfruit flour increased bread loaf quality attributes. Breadfruit bread with 15% soy flour was the most acceptable as it had the highest score for overall acceptability. Conclusively, the inclusion of soy flour enhanced the quality attributes of gluten free bread produced from breadfruit flour.


breadfruit flour; soy flour; gluten free bread; sourdough fermentation; loaf quality attributes

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